Male-On-Male Sexual Violence and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization & Perpetration: Social and Behavioral Determinants & Health Implications among South African Men Open Access

Murdock, Daniel Wade (2016)

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High rates of male-on-male sexual violence have been documented among South African men in the general population and disproportionally affect men who have sex with men (MSM). South African MSM also face high rates of physical intimate partner violence (PIPV). This dissertation applies a mixed-methods approach to identify social and behavioral correlates of male-on-male sexual violence and PIPV victimization and perpetration among MSM and non-MSM. The study also examines links between violence, depression, and HIV risk. Study findings revealed many parallels between male-on-female violence and male-on-male violence, and suggest that male-on-male sexual violence and PIPV are often associated with gendered norms and behaviors. The findings also indicate that both community homophobia and internalized homophobia are associated with violence victimization and perpetration. This research underscores the mental and sexual health implications of violence, examines novel theoretical approaches for understanding male-on-male violence, and supports evidence-based approaches to address male-on-male sexual violence and PIPV.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introductory Literature Review. 1

Significance. 1

Sexual Violence and PIPV among MSM Globally. 4

Social Determinants of PIPV and Sexual Violence among MSM. 5

Violence & Masculine Gender Constructions. 8

Gender & Power. 11

Gay Identities & Homophobia in South Africa. 13

Sexual Violence & STIs. 15

Conclusions. 19

References. 20

Chapter 2: Gender presentation, sexual identity, and partnership dynamics among South African MSM and MSM/W: Implications for violence and HIV prevention. 31

Abstract. 32

Introduction. 34

Methods. 37

Results. 39

Discussion. 45

References. 48

Chapter 3: Disparities in violence, mental health, and HIV risks among South African men with socially marginalized masculinities: An application of the Theory of Gender & Power. 53

Abstract. 54

Introduction. 56

Methods. 62

Results. 68

Discussion. 71

References. 75

Appendix: Tables & Figures. 79

Table 1: Characteristics of the Study Sample. 80

Table 2: Correlation Coefficients of Observed Indicator Variables. 81

Table 3: Results of the Structural Equation Modeling Analysis. 83

Figure 1: Hypothesized Model. 85

Figure 2: Standardized Measurement Model Results. 86

Figure 3: Standardized SEM Results: Hypothesized Model. 87

Figure 4: Standardized SEM Results: Final Model. 88

Chapter 4: A group-level path analysis comparing social and behavioral correlates of sexual violence perpetrated against men and women by MSM and non-MSM in South Africa. 89

Abstract. 90

Introduction. 92

Methods. 95

Results. 101

Discussion. 102

References. 107

Appendix: Tables & Figures. 113

Table 1: Social and Behavioral Characteristics of the Sample by MSM Status. 114

Table 2: Direct Effects. 115

Table 3: Indirect Effects. 117

Table 4: Total Effects. 118

Figure 1: Hypothesized Model. 120

Figure 2: Standardized Coefficients for Paths Significant at *p<0.06 among Non-MSM. 121

Figure 3: Standardized Coefficients for Paths Significant at *p<0.06 among MSM. 122

Chapter 5: Conclusion. 123

Male-On-Male PIPV and Sexual Violence Victimization. 123

Male-On-Male Sexual Violence Perpetration. 125

Overlapping Violence Victimization and Perpetration. 127

Mental and Sexual Health Implications. 128

Study Limitations. 129

Future Recommendations. 129

References. 131

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