Dengue Fever in Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2008 - 2012 Open Access

Alwafi, Osama Mohammed (2013)

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PURPOSE: Dengue fever is a reportable condition in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Case-based information is collected by the Vector-Borne Disease Unit (VBDU) in the Ministry of Health (MOH). However, these case records have not been analyzed statistically beyond producing aggregated reports by year. Therefore, we analyzed dengue fever data collected by the VBDU from 2008 to 2012 to inform policymakers about the distribution and trends in Makkah city, especially because it hosts the Hajj, a yearly mass gathering.

METHODS: Using reported data from the VBDU, we calculated incidence rates and trends by nationality, age, and gender from 2008 -2012.

RESULTS: In 2008, the incidence rate of dengue fever was 6.2 per 100,000 (95%CI=5-7.5). This rate increased approximately 20-fold in 2009 to 110.6 (95%CI=105.4-115.9). The incidence rate then declined in 2010 to 62.95 (95%CI=58.1-66). In 2011 it declined further to 56.5 (95%CI=52.8-60.3) and in 2012 to 37.6 (95%CI=34.6-40.8). We observed significant increases in dengue fever incidence among males throughout the study period, as well as among those 25-44 years of age.

CONCLUSION: Dengue fever is endemic in Makkah city. There was an outbreak in 2009. We recommend improving the surveillance system to include the types of dengue fever (dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome) plus outcomes (i.e., full recovery, recovery with complication, death). We also recommend using the revised WHO 2009 classification system. Additionally, dengue information should be available to the public to increase awareness. Finally, vector control efforts should be enhanced.

Table of Contents

Abstract 5
1. Introduction 8
2. Scientific Rationale 17
3. Objectives 18
4. Literature review 19
5. Methods 34
6. Results 35
7. Discussion 42
8. Recommendations 44
References 46


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