Factors Association with Motor Milestone Development in Infants and Young Children Open Access

Gil, Jeesook (2014)

Permanent URL: https://etd.library.emory.edu/concern/etds/2r36tx747?locale=en


Abstract Factors associated with Motor Milestone Development in Infants and Young Children By Jee Sook Gil, M.S. The purpose of this literature review is to explore the factors associated with the age at which specific gross motor milestones are attained in children around the world. Moreover, it describes measurement tools or scales used to evaluate children's gross motor milestone attainment. Twenty four databases were searched with key words related to infants' motor milestone development, such as motor activity, infant, motor milestone, motor skills, and motor development. Eleven different factors associated with infant and young children's gross motor milestone development are explored: children's nutritional status, physical growth, cultural and ethnic differences, birth weight, maternal nutritional status, maternal environmental exposure, children's environmental exposure, children's health status, sleeping and playing position, attainment of other motor milestones and others. The results demonstrate that children's nutritional status and physical growth are positively associated with gross motor milestones achievement at a certain age. Black mothers' rearing practices and children's prone sleeping and playing position are positively associated with children's motor milestone development. Having enough space where children can practice physical exercise is positively associated with infants' motor milestones achievement at certain ages. Improper maternal nutritional status and exposures to chemicals or polydrugs during pregnancy were associated with preterm birth, making them vulnerable to achieve normal motor milestones compared to full term infants. Sitting and crawling at an earlier age is positively associated with earlier development of other motor milestones such as walking. Socioeconomic status (SES), gender, birth length, and season of birth are not associated with infants' motor milestone achievement. There are nutritional and non-nutritional factors that influence (positively or negatively) child motor milestone development. Four basic methods, the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS) and the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) have been used to assess child motor milestone development.

Table of Contents

Introduction Methods Table 1 Database Research Figure 1 Flowchart of the Document Selection Results Figure 2 Conceptual Fame work Part I Factors Associated with Motor Milestone Development Table 1-12 (11 factors association) Table 14 Summary Studies: Positive,Negative and No Association of Eleven Factors Associated with Motor Milestone Development Part II Gross Motor Milestone Measurement Tools Table 13 Measurement Tool for Assessing Children's Gross Motor Milestone Development Discussion and Conclusion Bibliography Appendix Table 15 MGRS (Multicenter Growth Reference Study) Performance Criteria for Six Gross Motor Milestones Table 16 Summary of the Studies: Eleven Factors Associated with Children's Gross Motor Milestone Development Figure 3 Pictures for six gross motor milestones in MGRS Figure 4 Windows of milestone achievement expressed in months

About this Master's Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
  • English
Research Field
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Committee Members
Partnering Agencies
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files