The association between urinary phytoestrogen levels and prostate-specific antigen levels in men aged 40 and over in the US population Open Access

Aka, Philip (2015)

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Primary Objective: To determine if there is an association or correlation between phytoestrogenic levels in men aged 40 and older and their PSA levels.

Secondary Objective: To confirm the findings of previous studies that suggest a positive association between phytoestrogens and PSA levels in men.

Research Design and Methods: The sample analyzed is available in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset and includes 676 male subjects age 40 and over after excluding those with missing data for phytoestrogens. Serum PSA concentration was considered the dependent and urinary phytoestrogen levels were consider independent variables. Six phytoestrogens were analyzed. These included daidzein, equol, genistein, enterodiol, enterolactone, and O-Desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Possible confounders included race/ethnicity, smoking status, age, educational level, poverty-income ratio (PIR), HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and triglycerides. These variables were confounders because each has been correlated and/or associated with increased prostate cancer risk and can possibly be associated with phytoestrogen levels.

Results: No statistically significant associations between phytoestrogen levels and PSA were found.

Conclusions: In a small sample of the US adult male population aged 40 and over, it appears that phytoestrogenic levels have no association with PSA levels.

Table of Contents

Abstract ... 3

Introduction ... 7

Literature Review ... 10

Methods ... 24

Results ... 27

Discussion ... 28

References ... 31

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