Program Evaluation of a Gender Mainstreaming and WASH Intervention in Upper West, Ghana Open Access

Ghulamali, Sabah Qutbuddin (2016)

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Objectives: CARE International wanted to assess whether addressing gender equity and using empowerment approaches would lead to greater effectiveness and sustainability of WASH outcomes in rural Ghana.

Methods: A household survey (GAS) was conducted in 2014 (n=271) and 2015 (n=255) on gender; one community survey (GiFT) was completed in each village in 2014 and 2015 on WASH; and separate male and female focus group discussions were conducted in eight villages in 2015. Analysis methods included cluster difference-in-difference analyses in SAS, cross sectional correlation analyses in SAS, and qualitative analysis in Dedoose.

Results: After controlling for respondent age and sex in the GAS models, there was a statistically greater increase in equitable household decision-making scores in intervention communities over time than there was in control communities (p=0.05). GiFT scores did not yield any significant results, but indicators of household decision-making were positively correlated to 2015 GiFT WASH sustainability outcomes (p=0.02). Qualitative data helps explain the context in which gender equity and empowerment operates within local culture.

Conclusion: Quantitative results provide evidence that a comprehensive gender mainstreaming intervention can increase equity in household decision-making, a factor that is significantly positively correlated to WASH sustainability outcomes. However, the null results of other components of the intervention indicate areas for improvement in gender mainstreaming implementation. Future research should include women in planning stages while carefully considering how gender is defined and operationalized in local contexts.

Table of Contents

Introduction. 1

Description of Intervention. 5

Methods. 11

Results. 17

Discussion. 28

Recommendations. 30

Conclusion. 37

Appendix. 39

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