Association of Schistosoma haematobium and Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Nigerian Children Open Access

Kimbley, William (Spring 2021)

Permanent URL:



Both schistosomiasis and malaria are major public health concerns in sub-Saharan Africa. There are approximately 29 million Nigerians infected with schistosomiasis and an additional 101 million at risk for infection out of a total population of 201 million. In comparison, there are 100 million Nigerians infected with malaria with 195 million at risk of infection.


This study examined the association between these two parasitic infections in Nigerian children using a combination of univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Independent variables were selected using a Chi Squared Test of Independence. Chosen variables included age, gender, residence type, residence zone, wealth quintile, mosquito net ownership, and the variable of interest, schistosomiasis symptoms.


Data from the 2008 Nigeria DHS survey were analyzed to find variables affecting the prevalence of malaria infection. The analysis showed a significant protective effect of schistosomiasis infection on malaria infection (OR=0.85, 95% CI= 0.79 - 0.91, p<0.01). Gender was also found to have an effect on symptoms of schistosomiasis, with males having a higher prevalence than females (p<0.001).


Children showing symptoms of a schistosomiasis infection are 1.17 times less likely to have an active malaria infection than those who do not show signs of a schistosomiasis infection. The data may have under reported true schistosomiasis infection rates, as only symptoms were recorded and not verified parasite loads. This should be considered when evaluating both schistosomiasis and malaria interventions in sub-Saharan Africa.

Table of Contents


Background 1

Main Body 8

Abstract 8

Introduction 9

Methods 11

Study Area 12

data collection 12

Statistical Analysis 14

Independent Variables 14

Results  16

Risk Factors for malaria  17

Multivariate Analysis 19

Discussion 21

References 24

Tables 30

Table 1: Demographic Information 30

Table 2: Independent Variable encoding 31

Table 3: Univariate analysis results 32

Table 4: Multivariate Analysis Results 33

Summary, Public Health Implications, Future Directions 35

About this Master's Thesis

Rights statement
  • Permission granted by the author to include this thesis or dissertation in this repository. All rights reserved by the author. Please contact the author for information regarding the reproduction and use of this thesis or dissertation.
Subfield / Discipline
  • English
Research Field
Committee Chair / Thesis Advisor
Last modified

Primary PDF

Supplemental Files